Tài liệu luyện thi TOEIC

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Tài liệu luyện thi TOEIC
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Tài liệu luyện thi TOEIC

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Tài liệu luyện thi TOEIC

NOUN  1  Countable Noun                 ><       Uncountable Noun

Singular                     Plural                                     without a/an/ -s

a /an/the

Regular     Irregular

Noun –s/ es

Note 1

 

a means/series/species – means ..

a child – children

a foot   – feet

a tooth – teeth

a louse – lice

a person – people

a goose – geese

a mouse – mice

a man – men

a woman – women

on ox – oxen

a fish –  fish

a carp – carp

a cod – cod

a salmon – salmon

a deer – deer

a sheep – sheep

a crisis – crises

a thesis – theses

a diagnosis – diagnoses

a hypothesis – hypotheses

a parenthesis – parentheses

an axis – axes

an oasis – oases

a phenomenon –  phenomena

a criterion – criteria

a memorandum – memoranda

a curriculum – curricula

a bacterium – bacteria

a syllabus – syllabi

a cactus – cacti

a fungus – fungi

a stimulus – stimuli

a radius – radii

an appendix – appendices

an index – indices

Note 2: Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and ad ves

a calf – calves

a half – halves

a knife – knives

a leaf – leaves

a life – lives

a loaf – loaves

-self – -selves

a sheaf – sheaves

a shelf – shelves

a thief – thieves

a wife – wives

a wolf –wolves

But:

a hoof – hooves/hoofs                a roof – roofs                                   a cliff – cliffs

a safe – safes                             a handkerchief – handkerchiefs      a belief- beliefs

 

NOUN           2:        Compound Nouns

  1. Normally the last word is made plural

boyfriends

travel agents

shop windows

hitch-hikers

traffic wardens

river banks

city streets

corner shops

street markets

spring flowers

November fogs

church bells

college libraries

driving licenses

 

  1. But when man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural

men drivers

women drivers

  1. The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er or compounds composed of noun + preposition + noun

lookers-on                runners-up                           sisters-in-law

 

NOUN           3:  Quantifiers

  1. Many/several/various/numerous/diverse ><        Much
  2. A number of/numbers of ><        An amount of/amounts of
  3. (A) few            ><        (A) little
  4. Fewer/ the fewest ><        Less/ the least

 

NOUN           4:  Numbers

  1. a /two/three… hundred/thousand/million/billion/trillion + Noun
  2. hundreds/thousands/millions/billions + OF + Noun
  3. Compound adjectives

A three-year-old boy

A 16,000-page book

  1.         one/two/three percent (no –s) of Noun ; but a/the percentage of Noun

 

VERB

(1) Subject _ Verb Agreement

(2) Tenses

(3) Active                      ><                             Passive

Transitive V + Obj                             V + No Object /Prepositional phrase (by, in, with…)

(4) Form

  1. After modal verb + Bare inf (can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, will, would, would rather, had better, have to, ought to, be to, be supposed to)

V- ing ( active/ continuous tenses)

  1. After ‘be’
  2.     P (passive)
  3. After ‘have’ + P. P (perfect tenses)
  4. Gerund >< Infinitive
  5. Finite Verb >< Participle ( Present Participle >< Past participle)

 

PARALLEL STRUCTURE

  1. ,
  2. and
  3. but
  4. or
  5. either …or
  6. neither… nor
  7. not only… but also
  8. both … and
  9. rather than
  10. whether … or
  11. as well as

PRONOUN

  1. Pronoun/Noun Agreement they >< it/he/she/we

their >< its/his/her/our

them>< it/him/her/us

themselves><itself/himself/herself/ourselves

who/whom>< which

that (of )    >< those (of) (plural)

  1. Which type?
    1. Subjective Pronouns (I/You/He/She/It/ We/You/They)
      • Subject of a Verb
      • After ‘Be’
    2. Objective Pronouns (me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them)
      • Object of a Verb
      • Object of a Preposition
    3. Possessive Adjectives (my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their)
      • Before a Noun
      • Before a Gerund: We are surprised by their nesting in such harsh conditions
    4. Possessive Pronouns (mine/yours/his/hers/ours/yours/theirs)
    5. Reflexive Pro (myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves)
  2. Wrong spelling ( hisself/ theirselves/ ourself/ themself)
  3. The >< Possessive Adjective

Ex: His snake is a reptile.

He devoted the life to science.

  1. Double subject/object

Ex: Black Island in Long Island Sound it is surrounded by cold, dangerous waters.

  1. Unnecessary relative pronoun >< Necessary relative pronoun

Ex: Certain types of turtles that may live as long as 100 years.

The woman lives next door is too nosy.

WORD FORM

  1. Adjectives
    1. Before nouns

Ex:  an important meeting

  1. After ‘be’ and other linking verbs
    • be/become
    • look/seem/appear/sound
    • taste/feel/smell
    • stay/remain ( = continue to be)
    • turn/get/grow/go (= become)
    • prove/find

Ex:  She looks angry.

  1. Some adjectives end in –ly: friendly/costly/cowardly/lovely/lively/ lonely/likely/ugly/early/monthly/weekly/daily/hourly/nightly/yearly/quarterly/timely/scholarly/womanly/manly/motherly/fatherly/ kindly
  1. Adverbs
    1. Modify verbs: Ex: Ann eagerly accepted the challenge.
    2. Modify adjectives Ex: Ted seemed extremely curious about that topic.
    3. Modify participles Ex: A rapidly changing situation / A brightly colored
    4. Modify prepositions/ clause markers: soon after / immediately after/ long before/ shortly before
    5. Modify adverbs: Ex: The accident occurred incredibly
    6. Modify the whole sentence

–  general         ><        generally

– basic             ><        basically

– particular       ><     particularly

– possible         ><        possibly

– probable        ><        probably

– usual             ><        usually

– original          ><        originally                                       –  innate           ><         innately                  Ex:             Generally, I like my class

 

 

  1. Note
    1. fast (adj) à fast (adv)
    2. long (adj) à long (adv)
    3. hard (adj) à hard >< hardly
    4. high (adj) à high >< highly (figurative meaning)
    5. early (adj) à early (adv)
    6. good (adj) à well (adv)
VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE
Differ Difference Different Restrict Restriction Restrictive
Invent Invention Inventive Cultivate Culture Cultural
Compete Competition Competitive Agriculture Agricultural
Fertilize Fertilizer/fertility Fertile Empower Power Powerful
Decide Decision Decisive Importance Important
Prohibit Prohibition Prohibitive Significance Significant
Prevent Prevention Preventive Analyze Analysis Analytical
Beautify Beauty Beautiful Familiarize Familiarity Familiar
Originate Origin Original Popularize Popularity Popular
Emphasize Emphasis Emphatic Classify Classification Classifiable
Glorify Glory Glorious Categorize category Categorical
Mystify Mystery Mysterious Absent Absence Absent
Socialize Society Social Interest Interest Interesting
Generalize Generalization General Bore Boredom Boring
Simplify Simplicity Simple Fascinate Fascination Fascinating
Free Freedom Free Produce Production Productive
Construct Construction Constructive Necessitate Necessity Necessary
Live Life Live/living Collect Collection Collective

 

FIELD PERSON FIELD PERSON FIELD PERSON
Music Musician Surgery Surgeon Dentistry Dentist
Poetry Poet Architecture Architect Engineering Engineer
Administration Administrator Farming Farmer Finance Financier
Photography Photographer Biology Biologist Physics Physicist
Athletics Athlete Theory Theorist Science Scientist
Philosophy Philosopher Chemistry Chemist Invention Inventor
Creation Creator Politics Politician Crime/criminology Criminal
Law Lawyer Humor Humorist Mathematics mathematician
History Historian Biography Biographer Manufacture Manufacturer
Editing Editor Writing Writer Acting Actor/actress
Magic Magician Geography Geographer Collection Collector
Forecast Forecaster Hunting Hunter Employment Employee/er
Training Trainer Dance Dancer Competition Competitor
Contest Contestant Beauty Beautician Labor Laborer
Discovery Discoverer Carpentry Carpenter
NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE
Strength Strengthen Strong Heat Heat Hot
Hardness Harden Hard Light Lighten Light
Softness Soften Soft Brightness Brighten Bright/brilliant
Depth Deepen Deep Thickness Thicken Thick
Ripeness Ripen Ripe Richness Enrich Rich
Solidity Solidify Solid Humidity Humidify Humid
Length Lengthen Long Flatness/flat Flatten Flat
Shortness Shorten Short Height Heighten High
Weight Weigh Weighty/weightless Darkness/dark Darken Dark
Blackness Blacken Black White/whiteness Whiten White
Fat Fatten Fat Largeness Enlarge Large

Nouns:  hearing/sight/smell/taste/touch

Verbs:   hear/see/smell/taste/touch

WORD CHOICE

  1. Wrong choice of MAKE or DO
    • MAKE an agreement/ an announcement/ an attempt/an effort/ a decision/a discovery/ an offer/a profit/ a promise/ advances in/ a comparison/ a contribution/ a distinction/ a forecast/ a law/ a point/ an investment/ a plan/ a prediction/ a sound/ noise/use of/ a choice/ a loan/an appointment
    • MAKE UP OF (= be composed of ); MAKE UP (= compose)
    • DO an assignment/the dishes/ the washing-up/the shopping/ the ironing/the cooking/a favor/homework/the laundry/ a paper//research/ a job/ one’s work/ business with/ justice to/  wrong/ a kindness/one’s duty/harm/one’s best/a service/damage/ wonder       
  2. Wrong choice of like/ alike/like or as
    • Like/Unlike A, B +  Verb
    • A, like/unlike B, + Verb
    • A is like/unlike B
    • A and B are alike
    • Like + Noun                     Ex: My results were much like Paul’s
    • As + Subject +Verb Ex: I did my experiment just as Paul did
    • As + Noun (=in the role of)
    • serve as/ function as/ use sth as/ be used as/ be thought of as/ be referred to as
    • regard/consider/name/choose/elect/select/designate/appoint/declare/nominate/proclaim/announce s.o/sth (as) s.o/sth

 

 

 

  1. Wrong choice of so, such, too

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Wrong choice of because or because of; although or in spite of /despite; when/while or during

 

  1. Wrong choice of ANOTHER or OTHER
Another Other
Adjective ·        another + Noun (singular) ·   other + Noun (plural)

·   Determiner (the, some, any,

every, one, no) + other + Noun (sing)

Pronoun ·   another (an additional one)

Ex: Give me another.

·   the other/the others

Ex: Of the two teachers, one is experienced, and the other is not.

Note:     each other / one another

from one …    to another

  1. Other word form problems

BE CAREFUL WITH THESE PAIRS OF WORDS

  • no + noun >< not … any
  • no longer >< not … any longer/any more
  • most + Noun

most of  the Noun

almost all of the Noun/ almost no + Noun/almost every + Noun

the most +adj/adv (superlative)

  • almost + quantifier/adjective/adverb (Word Order)
  • twice (adjective) >< double (verb)

Note:  be twice as… as…

  • earliest >< soonest
  • one /two/three…percent of >< a /the percentage of
  • after >< afterward (adv = after that )
  • ago >< before
  • tell so that >< say that/say to so that

Note: tell a story/a lie/lies/the truth/ a secret

  • hardly ever >< never
  • hard/hardly
  • and/but/or
  • be alive >< live + Noun
  • old > < of age
  • near (=close to) >< nearly (=almost)
  • some + Noun >< somewhat + adjective
  • affect so/sth >< effect of sth on so/sth
  • already (adv) >< be all ready ( adjective)
  • among (3 or more) >< between ( 2)
  • and (conjunction) >< also (adverb)
  • beside (=next to) >< besides (= in addition)
  • costume (=clothing) >< custom (traditional practice)
  • farther/further (distance) >< further (= more)
  • formally (=officially) >< formerly (=previously)
  • hard >< hardly
  • imaginary (= not real/fictional) >< imaginative (=creative)
  • later >< latter
  • lay laid laid      laying  +Object  (= put/place)

lie        lay       lain     lying   (= be situated/located)

lie        lied      lied      lying (= not tell the truth)

  • loose (adj) >< lose (verb)
  • no>< not>< none
  • pass (verb) >< past (adj/noun/preposition)

Note:  pass = go/come past

  • quiet (adj) >< quite (adv)
  • raise + object/ be raised (passive) >< rise (without an object)
  • set + object (=put/place) >< sit (without an object)
  • thorough (adj) >< through (adv)
  • out >< out of +Noun
  • away>< away from + Noun
  • out/in (preposition) >< outer/inner (adjective)
  • listen to >< hear
  • lone/live/sleeping + noun >< be alone/ alive/asleep
  1. Redundancy
  • connect together
  • repeat again
  • join together
  • proceed forward
  • advance forward
  • only unique
  • new innovations
  • reread again
  • return back
  • same identical
  • sufficient enough
  • separated away from
  • incorrect mistake
  • progress forward
  • important significant
  • carefully cautiously
  • established founded
  • protect guard
  • original first
  • rarely seldom
  • transmit send out
  • single only
  • around approximately
  • chief main
  • such as for example
  • necessary needed

 

 

Inversion

  1. Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs

 

Ex:      I haven’t got a ticket. – Neither/Nor have I.

Never before had I been asked to accept a bribe.

Not only do they rob you, they smash everything too

On no account must this switch be touched

Only by shouting was he able to make himself heard.

Only in an emergency should you use this exit.

Rarely did this remedy fail

So suspicious did he become that …

So confusing was the map that we had to ask a police officer for directions.

Such is the popularity of the place that the theater is likely to be full every night.

 

  1. The subject and verb of the second clause ( not the first clause) are inverted when the following expressions occur at the beginning of a sentence


 

Ex:     Not until he got home   did he realize that he had lost it.

Only if you study hard can you pass the final exam.

 

  1. In written English adverb phrases introduced by preposition (down, from, in, on, over, off, out of, round, up .etc.) can be followed by verbs indicating position (crouch, hang, lie sit, stand, be ), by verbs of motion.

Ex:     From the rafters hung strings of onions.

In the door way stood a man with a gun.

On a perch beside him sat a blue parrot

Over the wall came a shower of stone.

In front of the museum is a statue.

Off the coast of California lie the Channel Islands.

 

 

Ex:   Across the United States, the general movement of air masses is from west to east.

  1. If + Subject + auxiliary can be replaced in formal English by inversion of auxiliary and subject with if omitted.

Ex:     If I were in his shoes …                      =          Were I in his shoes …

If you should require anything…       =          Should you require anything …

If he had known …                             =          Had he known…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Double Comparison

Note:   the worse (not the worst), the less (not the least), the better (not the best)

Ex: The more he plays, the more he improves.

Incorrect Article Choice

  • a ><                    an

            Ex:       A eclipse of the sun may be either total or partial

  • a/an ><                    without a/an (uncountable noun)
  • a/an ><                    the

            Ex:       Rose Bird was a first woman in the history of California to serve on the State Supreme Court

  • a/an/the ><                    without a/an/the

Ex:       Slag consists of waste material and impurities which rise to top of melted metals.

The most asteroids are beyond the orbit of the planet Mars.

  • the ><                    possessive adjectives

Ex:       The Ozark Mountains of Arkansas are known for the rugged beauty

Note:

 

 

 

 

Common clause markers:

  1. Time: after , as, as long as, as soon as, before, by the time, now that, once, since, until, when, while, whenever
  2. Concessions/Contrast: although, even though, though, even if, whereas, while, despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that, except that/however
  3. Reason: as, because, since, in that, in case
  4. Results: so that, so … that, such… that
  5. Manner: as if, as though
  6. Place: wherever
  7. Conditions: if, even if, only if, provided, unless

Conjunctions:        –     and, but, yet, for, so, or

Conjunctive advs –     besides, likewise, moreover, in addition, additionally

  • however, nevertheless, on the other hand, in contrast, in spite of this
  • therefore, as a result, accordingly, consequently
  • otherwise
  • then, meanwhile
  • similarly, correspondingly, likewise
  • for example, for instance

                                         ARTICLES

A/AN

  1. Before singular countable nouns

Ex: Australia is a continent

  1. To introduce a subject that has not mentioned before

Ex: I saw a tiger.

  1. With certain expressions

 

a dozen

a couple

a/one hundred/thousand/million

a great many

a great deal

a lot of

a/one half

a/one third

a/one quarter

fifty miles an/per hour                                 ten kilometers an/per hour

$10 a/per day

  1. With names of professions

Ex: He is an engineer.                    She is a doctor.

 

THE

  1. Only one example of the thing/person or the identity of the person or thing is clear

Ex:      The moon is full today.

Please open the door.

  1. 2. With certain expressions

the morning/afternoon/evening

the past/present/future

the front/back/center/top/bottom

the beginning/middle/end

the north/south/east/west

  1. 3. Before a singular noun representative of a class of things ( usually names of animals, plants, inventions, musical instruments, and parts of the body)

Ex:      The tiger is the largest cat

The heart pumps blood

The Wright brothers invented the airplane.

She plays the guitar.

  1. 4. Before ordinal number (Note: No article is used before expressions with cardinal numbers.)

            Ex:      The First  World War (But:  World War One)

The second chapter (But:  Chapter Two)

The third gate           (But:  Gate Three)

The seventh volume (But: Volume Seven)

  1. 5. Before decades and centuries

Ex:      the 1930s                              the fifties                   the sixties

the twenty-first century       the 1800s                  the twentieth century

  1. Before superlative adjectives

Ex:      The biggest island on earth is Greenland.

  1. Quantifier + of + the + noun

Many/ some/all/much/most/a few/all/… of the + Noun

Note: These expressions can also be used without the phrase of the

Ex:      Many books                                      not much paper

Some water                                       a few pictures

  1. Before a group of people or a nationality

Ex:      The Vietnamese are very hardworking

The Swedish are proud of their ancestors, the Vikings.

Note: No article is used before the name of a language

Ex:      She learned to speak Vietnamese when she lived in Hanoi.

  1. The + adjective (= people who are…)

Ex:      The rich should help the poor.

  1. Before a specific noun

Ex:      The coffee I had this morning was Brazilian (specific)

Coffee originated in Ethiopia. (general)

The rice that I bought today is in the bag. (specific)

Rice is a staple in many countries.(general)

The trees in this park are mostly evergreens. (specific)

Trees provide shade. (general)

 

 

 

  1. The + subject + of NP

       Subject (used alone)  –> no article

       Adjective + Subject     –> no article

Ex:      The literature of the twentieth century

The history of The United States.

But:     I major in literature

                        I study American history.

  1. 12. Before names of countries, states, cities, universities, colleges, and schools that contain the word “of” or before countries that have a plural name or an adjective in the name, except for Great Britain

            Ex:      The United States of America

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (but: Vietnam)

The State of Florida            (But: Florida)

The city of Boston ( But:  Boston)

The University of Texas ( But:  Boston University)

The Netherlands/ The Philippines

  1. 13. Before
  2. oceans: Ex:      The pacific Ocean
  3. seas Ex: The Black Sea
  4. gulfs Ex: The Gulf of Mexico
  5. rivers Ex: The Nile
  6. plural names of mountains Ex: The Appalachian Mountains (But: Mount Everest)
  7. plural names of islands Ex: The Hawaiian Islands (But: Manhattan Island)
  8. plural names of lakes Ex: The Great Lakes (But: Lake Michigan)
  9. 14. Before the names of ships, planes, trains and people’s family names

Ex:      The Titanic

The Orient Express

The Browns

 

 

GERUND AND INFINITIVE

  1. VERB + TO INF
afford              beg                  expect             manage           pretend            threaten

agree               care                 fail                   mean               promise           want

appear             consent           forget               need                refuse              wish

arrange            decide             hesitate            offer                seem               try

ask                  desire              hope                plan                 struggle           intend

attempt            deserve           learn                prepare            swear

Ex:      Tom wants to become a doctor.

Susan pretended to sleep.

David promised not to be late again.

  1. VERB + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE
advise             challenge                     forbid               order                teach               invite

allow               convince                     force                permit             tell                    recommend

ask                  dare                             hire                  persuade         urge                 enable

beg                  encourage                  instruct                        remind             want                lead

cause              expect                         invite                require             warn                motivate

use

Ex:  They begged us to come.

        I warn you not to drive so fast.

     Note:   advise/allow/encourage/permit/recommend (1) + object + to inf

                                                                                               (2) + V-ing

Ex:   He doesn’t allow smoking in his house

He doesn’t allow anyone to smoke in his house

Nobody is allowed to smoke in his house

III. VERB + V-ING

admit                           delay               finish                postpone         resent              miss

appreciate                   deny                can’t help         practice           resist                tolerate

avoid                           discuss            keep                quit                  risk                  involve

complete                     dislike              mention           recall               stop                 understand

consider                      enjoy               mind                recollect          suggest            include

 

 

 

 

Ex:     I dislike driving long distances

I can’t help worrying about it.

Would you mind not smoking in this class?

  1. VERB + V-ING/ TO INFINITIVE
begin               continue                      hate                 prefer

start                 can’t stand                   love                 like

Ex: It began to rain/ raining

Note:  would like/love/prefer + to infinitive

Ex: I would like to play tennis today.

  1. ADJECTIVE / PARTICIPLE+ TO INFINITIVE
anxious                        difficult                                    willing                          boring

eager                           hard                             able                             interesting

usual                            dangerous                   pleased                                    …

easy                            ready                           prepared

Ex:   Tom is anxious to see his family.

It is very dangerous to drive in this weather.

We are ready to leave now.

      

          Note: be busy/worth + V-ing.

Ex:   He is busy doing his homework.

The book is worth reading.

  1. PREPOSITION + V-ING
    1. VERB + PREPOSITION + V-ING
approve of       succeed in       think of                                    look forward to         dedicate to

give up                        count on          depend on                   object to                     commit to

rely on             keep on           put off                          confess to

insist on           think about      dream about                devote to

 

Ex:   John gave up smoking three years ago.

I am looking forward to going back to school.

  1. ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION + V-ING
afraid of                       capable of                   tired of be/get accustomed to

interested in                 successful in               fond of be/get used to

Ex:   She is afraid of getting married now.

To gets used to getting up early.

  • SPECIAL CASES
    1. STOP

He stopped smoking (He gave up smoking; he is not going to smoke any more.)

He stopped to smoke (He stopped doing something in order to smoke)

  1. TRY

                       TRY + TO INF: make an effort to do something

Ex:  I was very tire. I tried to keep my eyes open, but I couldn’t.

TRY + V-ING: do something as an experiment or test

 Ex:   I’ve got a terrible headache. I tried taking an aspirin, but it did not help.

  1. REMEMBER

REMEMBER + TO INF: You remember to do something before you do it

Ex:   Please remember to post the letter. (= Don’t forget to post the letter)

REMEMBER + V-ING: You remember doing something after you do it

Ex:   I clearly remember locking the door before I left.

  1. NEED

NEED + TO INF (ACTIVE)

Ex:   John needs to paint the door.

My friend needed to learn Spanish

NEED + V-ING = NEED + TO BE DONE (PASSIVE)

Ex:  The grass needs cutting/ to be cut.

The television needs fixing/to be fixed.

  1. MAKE/LET/HAVE + OBJECT + BARE INFINITIVE

Ex:   Sad movies always make me cry.

I had the mechanic repair my car. (I had my car repaired by the mechanic

My parents do not let me go out late at night.

  1. VERBS OF PERCEPTION + V-ING/ BARE INFINITIVE
see                              look at                         listen to

notice                          observe                       smell

watch                          hear                             feel

    

 

 

 

 

      Ex:   I saw my friend running/run down the street.

                                                                                                     

  1. GO + V-ING
            boating            dancing           jogging             shopping          swimming

GO      bowling            fishing              climbing           sightseeing

camping          hiking               running            skating

canoeing         hunting            sailing              skiing

 

 

 

 

 

 

      Ex:   My sister went sailing yesterday

  1. TO INFINITIVE can be used after the first, the second…, the last, the only and sometimes after superlatives.

Ex:   She loves parties. She is always the first to come and the last to leave.

He is the second man to be killed in this way.

  1. TO INFINITIVE can be used after certain nouns
ability              demand                       failure             request

ambition          desire                          offer                scheme

anxiety                        determination            plan                 willingness

attempt           eagerness                   promise           wish

decision         effort                           refusal             readiness

 

 

 

 

 

 

                        Ex:   His ability to get on with people is his chief asset.

 Ex:   He made an effort to stand up.

catch/find/leave         +          Object             +          V-ing

spend/ waste             +          Time                +          V-ing

have fun/ a good time                                   +          V-ing

have trouble/difficulty                                  +          V-ing

have a hard time/ difficult time                    +          V-ing

 

 

WORD ENDINGS

  1. COMMON NOUN (THING) ENDINGS
    1. –ism : baptism, criticism, organism, heroism, patriotism, alcoholism,

  barbarism, dwarfism, parallelism

  1. –nce : importance, significance, dependence, arrogance, resistance,

   subsistence

  1. –ness : bitterness, conceitedness, darkness, hardness, kindheartedness
  2. –ion : excision, damnation, pollution, suggestion, a notion, an action,

vexation, concoction, completion.

  1. –ment : abridgement, accomplishment, banishment, commencement,

 embodiment, enhancement, excitement, fragment, garment, ornament, treatment

  1. –(i)ty : purity, authority, dubiety, majority, superiority, humidity, cruelty,

faculty, honesty, plenty, safety, subtlety

  1. –age : baggage, carriage, cartage, damage, dotage, hermitage, homage

language, luggage, marriage, passage, tillage, tonnage, vicarage,

                                                  village.

  1. ship : ambassadorship, citizenship, headship, professorship, chairmanship,

fellowship, scholarship, companionship, friendship, hardship,

relationship, craftsmanship, entrepreneurship, horsemanship,

  membership, courtship

  1. –th : bath, birth, death, oath, growth, stealth, filth, health, length, strength,

  truth, depth, breadth, wealth.

  1. –dom : earldom, freedom, kingdom, officialdom, wisdom
  2. –hood    : childhood, falsehood, sisterhood, brotherhood, neighborhood,

  likelihood, livelihood

  1. –ure : closure, picture, scripture, legislature, nature, failure, pleasure,

  treasure

  1. –cy : bankruptcy, captaincy, democracy, privacy, delicacy, advocacy,

  confederacy, accuracy, obstinacy, piracy, , aristocracy, expectancy,

  efficiency, presidency, sufficiency, deficiency

  1. –(t)ry :  rivalry, ancestry, carpentry, industry, greenery, machinery, scenery,

  bakery, brewery, bravery, slavery, archery

  1. –logy :  archaeology, geology, sociology, theology, zoology
  2. –graphy : bibliography, biography
  1. COMMON NOUN (PERSON) ENDINGS
    1. – or : actor, creator, doctor, monitor, sculptor, successor, guarantor,

  conqueror, donor, governor, solicitor, tailor, visitor. bachelor

  1. – er : hatter, geographer, astrologer, cottager, foreigner, Londoner,

  New Yorker, northerner, villager, airliner, old-timer, sorcerer

  1. – ee : employee, payee, devotee, escapee, conferee, absentee, refugee.
  2. – ist : chemist, dramatist, economist, geologist; dentist, pianist, tobacconist;

  Buddhist, Darwinist, idealist, Marxist, racist, optimist, pessimist

  1. – ician : magician, physician, musician, electrician, beautician,

  politician, statistician, mathematician, mortician,

  1. – ant (10%) : assistant, accountant, consultant, contestant, inhabitant

 

  1. ADJECTIVE ENDINGS
    1. – ent : independent, sufficient, absent, ambivalent, ancient, apparent,

  ardent  

  1. – ant : arrogant, expectant, important, significant , abundant, ignorant,

  brilliant, 

  1. – ful : beautiful, graceful, powerful, grateful, forgetful, mournful,

Exceptions:   handful, mouthful, spoonful  are nouns

  1. – ic : civic, classic, historic, artistic, economic,
  2. – less : doubtless, fearless, hatless, powerless, countless, tireless, faceless,

  legless, careless, helpless

  1. – ive : authoritative, demonstrative, figurative, imitative, qualitative,

  talkative, active, passive, comparative, possessive

  1. – ous : dangerous, glorious, murderous, viscous, ferocious, hilarious,    
  2. – able : charitable, separable, bearable, reliable, comfortable, suitable.
  3. – ible : audible, compressible, edible, horrible, terrible
  4. – al         : central, general, oral, colossal, tropical, tidal

Exceptions : rival, arrival, proposal, withdrawal, survival are nouns

  1. – ory       : mandatory, compulsory, predatory, satisfactory

Exceptions : dormitory, promontory, territory are nouns

  1. – ary       : arbitrary, budgetary, contrary, primary, temporary, necessary
  2. – y           :  angry, happy, icy, messy, milky, tidy, chilly, haughty, slippery,
  3. – ly :  beastly, cowardly, queenly, rascally
  4. – (r)ate (10%): temperate, accurate, considerate, immediate, literate
  5. – ish       : boorish, boyish, foolish, womanish, bookish, feverish, bluish, reddish

 

  1. COMMON VERB ENDINGS
    1. – en/ en – : listen, happen, strengthen, lengthen, shorten, soften, ripen, deepen,

  widen, entrust, enslave, enlighten, entangle, enlarge, encourage,     

  enable, enrich    

  1. – ate : assassinate, associate, fascinate, felicitate, hydrate, separate,

  vaccinate, evacuate

  1. – ize : characterize, idolize, agonize, apologize, sympathize, theorize,

  authorize, extemporize, fertilize, fossilize, jeopardize, moralize,

   Americanize, carbonize, oxidize

  1. – ify : pacify, satisfy, petrify, solidify, horrify

 

  1. COMMON ADVERB ENDING
    1. – ly : amusingly, deservedly, firstly, fully, greatly, happily, hourly, truly,

  firstly, secondly

  1. – wise : crosswise, lengthwise, otherwise, clockwise
  2. – ways : edgeways, endways, lengthways, sideways
  3. – ward : backward, homeward, inward, onward, skyward, eastward

 

 

 

 

SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT

  1. BASIC SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT
  2. Singular Subject + Singular Verb
  3. Plural Subject + Plural Verb

Ex:       My friend lives in Boston.

Growing flowers is her hobby.

My friends live in Boston.

  1. SPECIAL CASES
Sing Subject 1 and Sing Subject 2 + Plural Verb

Ex:     The actor and the singer are coming.

Jean and David are coming back to Australia.

Note: However, phrases connected by and can be followed by singular verbs if we think of them as making up a single item.

Ex:      Meat pie and peas  is Tom’s favorite at the moment

Fish and chips  is my favorite food

                         of

in addition to

with

Subject 1 +     together with  + Subject 2    + Verb

along with

as well as

no less than

like/ unlike

2.

 

 

 

 

Ex:      One of my friends is here.

You together with Tom are responsible for this failure.

Ex:      Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach

There   +   be   +          Noun

 

Ex:      There is a book on the shelf

There are three books on the shelf

There/ Here     + Verb             +          Noun  

Ex:       Here comes the Queen.

Here lie many unknown soldiers.

Every                          Noun (singular)

Each          +                                                 +  Singular Verb

Either                           of  the Noun (plural)

Neither

Ex:      Each boy/ each of the boys has a gift.

Note: Each boy and each girl is to do this exercise.

Everyone        Something       Nobody

Everybody      Anyone            Nothing

Everything       Anybody                           +     Singular Verb           

Someone        Anything

Somebody      No one

 

Ex:  Everyone has his or her own idea.

 

Ex:      A number of refugees have been turned back at the border.

Plenty of potatoes are grown here.

None of the answers are correct.

The number of   +     Plural Noun     + Singular Verb

Ex:      The number of books in the library has risen to over five million.

Any of

None of

The majority of

A lot of                       + Uncountable Noun   +    Singular Verb    

Plenty of

All (of)

Some (of)

 

 

 

 

Ex:      All the furniture was destroyed in the fire.

9.

Ex:       The team is winning. (the team as a group)

The team are going back to their homes. (meaning individual members of the team)

belongings                   riches              glasses

clothes                         savings            pliers

congratulations            stairs                pants

earnings                      surroundings               +  Plural Verb

goods                          thanks

outskirts                       scissors

particulars                   shorts

premises                     jeans

Ex:       The pants are in the drawer.

(A pair of pants is in the drawer)

police

people             +          Plural Verb

cattle

poultry

 

          Ex:       The police are looking for the missing child.

news                measles           rabies

physics            statistics          diabetes

politics             mathematics   gymnastics      +          Singular Verb

mumps            physics            athletics

economics      phonetics         linguistics

 

 

         

Ex:       Physics is difficult.

The news is alarming.

  1. The titles of books, plays, movies, etc., always take a singular verb

Ex:      The Los Angeles Times is on the desk.

Gulliver’s Travels is a well-known children’s book.

  1. Nouns stating an amount of time, money or measurement always take a singular verb

Ex:      Five minutes is not enough to do this exercise.

            Thirty-five dollars is too much for this shirt.

Four -hundred miles is too much to drive in one day.

The +    Adjective      +          Plural Verb

Ex:      The poor need help.

 

 

Uncountable Noun            +         Singular Verb

baggage          clothing            equipment       food                 fruit                  furniture

garbage           hardware         jewelry             junk                 luggage           machinery

mail                 makeup           money             cash                change            postage

water               coffee              tea                   milk                 oil                     soup

gasoline           blood

ice                   bread               butter               cheese                        meat                gold

iron                  silver                glass                paper               wood               wool

steam              air                    oxygen                        nitrogen           smoke             pollution

rice                  chalk               corn                 dust                 grass               hair

pepper             dirt                   salt                   sand                flour                 wheat

beauty             confidence      courage           education        enjoyment       fun

happiness        health              help                 honesty           hospitality        importance

intelligence      justice              knowledge       laughter           music              luck

patience          peace              pride                progress          recreation        sleep

truth                 violence           wealth  …

advice             information      news                evidence         proof                time

space              energy             homework       work                grammar         slang

vocabulary

driving             swimming        traveling          working

baseball           soccer             tennis               chess

weather           dew                 fog                   hail                   heat                 humidity

lightning           rain                  sleet                 snow                thunder            wind

darkness         light                  sunshine          electricity         fire                   gravity

Fluids

Solids

Gases

 

Particles

Abstraction

 

 

Activities

 

Natural

phenomena

Ex:      Smoking is harmful to your health.

     

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