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Tài liệu luyện thi TOEIC
NOUN 1 Countable Noun >< Uncountable Noun
Singular Plural without a/an/ -s
Noun –s/ es
a means/series/species – means ..
a child – children
a foot – feet
a tooth – teeth
a louse – lice
a person – people
a goose – geese
a mouse – mice
a man – men
a woman – women
on ox – oxen
a fish – fish
a carp – carp
a cod – cod
a salmon – salmon
a deer – deer
a sheep – sheep
a crisis – crises
a thesis – theses
a diagnosis – diagnoses
a hypothesis – hypotheses
a parenthesis – parentheses
an axis – axes
an oasis – oases
a phenomenon – phenomena
a criterion – criteria
a memorandum – memoranda
a curriculum – curricula
a bacterium – bacteria
a syllabus – syllabi
a cactus – cacti
a fungus – fungi
a stimulus – stimuli
a radius – radii
an appendix – appendices
an index – indices
Note 2: Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and ad ves
a calf – calves
a half – halves
a knife – knives
a leaf – leaves
a life – lives
a loaf – loaves
-self – -selves
a sheaf – sheaves
a shelf – shelves
a thief – thieves
a wife – wives
a wolf –wolves
a hoof – hooves/hoofs a roof – roofs a cliff – cliffs
a safe – safes a handkerchief – handkerchiefs a belief- beliefs
NOUN 2: Compound Nouns
- Normally the last word is made plural
- But when man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural
- The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er or compounds composed of noun + preposition + noun
lookers-on runners-up sisters-in-law
NOUN 3: Quantifiers
- Many/several/various/numerous/diverse >< Much
- A number of/numbers of >< An amount of/amounts of
- (A) few >< (A) little
- Fewer/ the fewest >< Less/ the least
NOUN 4: Numbers
- a /two/three… hundred/thousand/million/billion/trillion + Noun
- hundreds/thousands/millions/billions + OF + Noun
- Compound adjectives
A three-year-old boy
A 16,000-page book
- one/two/three percent (no –s) of Noun ; but a/the percentage of Noun
(1) Subject _ Verb Agreement
(3) Active >< Passive
Transitive V + Obj V + No Object /Prepositional phrase (by, in, with…)
- After modal verb + Bare inf (can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, will, would, would rather, had better, have to, ought to, be to, be supposed to)
V- ing ( active/ continuous tenses)
- After ‘be’
- P (passive)
- After ‘have’ + P. P (perfect tenses)
- Gerund >< Infinitive
- Finite Verb >< Participle ( Present Participle >< Past participle)
- either …or
- neither… nor
- not only… but also
- both … and
- rather than
- whether … or
- as well as
- Pronoun/Noun Agreement they >< it/he/she/we
their >< its/his/her/our
that (of ) >< those (of) (plural)
- Which type?
- Subjective Pronouns (I/You/He/She/It/ We/You/They)
- Subject of a Verb
- After ‘Be’
- Objective Pronouns (me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them)
- Object of a Verb
- Object of a Preposition
- Possessive Adjectives (my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their)
- Before a Noun
- Before a Gerund: We are surprised by their nesting in such harsh conditions
- Possessive Pronouns (mine/yours/his/hers/ours/yours/theirs)
- Reflexive Pro (myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves)
- Subjective Pronouns (I/You/He/She/It/ We/You/They)
- Wrong spelling ( hisself/ theirselves/ ourself/ themself)
- The >< Possessive Adjective
Ex: His snake is a reptile.
He devoted the life to science.
- Double subject/object
Ex: Black Island in Long Island Sound it is surrounded by cold, dangerous waters.
- Unnecessary relative pronoun >< Necessary relative pronoun
Ex: Certain types of turtles that may live as long as 100 years.
The woman lives next door is too nosy.
- Before nouns
Ex: an important meeting
- After ‘be’ and other linking verbs
- stay/remain ( = continue to be)
- turn/get/grow/go (= become)
Ex: She looks angry.
- Some adjectives end in –ly: friendly/costly/cowardly/lovely/lively/ lonely/likely/ugly/early/monthly/weekly/daily/hourly/nightly/yearly/quarterly/timely/scholarly/womanly/manly/motherly/fatherly/ kindly
- Modify verbs: Ex: Ann eagerly accepted the challenge.
- Modify adjectives Ex: Ted seemed extremely curious about that topic.
- Modify participles Ex: A rapidly changing situation / A brightly colored
- Modify prepositions/ clause markers: soon after / immediately after/ long before/ shortly before
- Modify adverbs: Ex: The accident occurred incredibly
- Modify the whole sentence
– general >< generally
– basic >< basically
– particular >< particularly
– possible >< possibly
– probable >< probably
– usual >< usually
– original >< originally – innate >< innately Ex: Generally, I like my class
- fast (adj) à fast (adv)
- long (adj) à long (adv)
- hard (adj) à hard >< hardly
- high (adj) à high >< highly (figurative meaning)
- early (adj) à early (adv)
- good (adj) à well (adv)
- Wrong choice of MAKE or DO
- MAKE an agreement/ an announcement/ an attempt/an effort/ a decision/a discovery/ an offer/a profit/ a promise/ advances in/ a comparison/ a contribution/ a distinction/ a forecast/ a law/ a point/ an investment/ a plan/ a prediction/ a sound/ noise/use of/ a choice/ a loan/an appointment
- MAKE UP OF (= be composed of ); MAKE UP (= compose)
- DO an assignment/the dishes/ the washing-up/the shopping/ the ironing/the cooking/a favor/homework/the laundry/ a paper//research/ a job/ one’s work/ business with/ justice to/ wrong/ a kindness/one’s duty/harm/one’s best/a service/damage/ wonder
- Wrong choice of like/ alike/like or as
- Like/Unlike A, B + Verb
- A, like/unlike B, + Verb
- A is like/unlike B
- A and B are alike
- Like + Noun Ex: My results were much like Paul’s
- As + Subject +Verb Ex: I did my experiment just as Paul did
- As + Noun (=in the role of)
- serve as/ function as/ use sth as/ be used as/ be thought of as/ be referred to as
- regard/consider/name/choose/elect/select/designate/appoint/declare/nominate/proclaim/announce s.o/sth (as) s.o/sth
- Wrong choice of so, such, too
- Wrong choice of because or because of; although or in spite of /despite; when/while or during
- Wrong choice of ANOTHER or OTHER
|Adjective||· another + Noun (singular)||· other + Noun (plural)
· Determiner (the, some, any,
every, one, no) + other + Noun (sing)
|Pronoun||· another (an additional one)
Ex: Give me another.
|· the other/the others
Ex: Of the two teachers, one is experienced, and the other is not.
Note: each other / one another
from one … to another
- Other word form problems
BE CAREFUL WITH THESE PAIRS OF WORDS
- no + noun >< not … any
- no longer >< not … any longer/any more
- most + Noun
most of the Noun
almost all of the Noun/ almost no + Noun/almost every + Noun
the most +adj/adv (superlative)
- almost + quantifier/adjective/adverb (Word Order)
- twice (adjective) >< double (verb)
Note: be twice as… as…
- earliest >< soonest
- one /two/three…percent of >< a /the percentage of
- after >< afterward (adv = after that )
- ago >< before
- tell so that >< say that/say to so that
Note: tell a story/a lie/lies/the truth/ a secret
- hardly ever >< never
- be alive >< live + Noun
- old > < of age
- near (=close to) >< nearly (=almost)
- some + Noun >< somewhat + adjective
- affect so/sth >< effect of sth on so/sth
- already (adv) >< be all ready ( adjective)
- among (3 or more) >< between ( 2)
- and (conjunction) >< also (adverb)
- beside (=next to) >< besides (= in addition)
- costume (=clothing) >< custom (traditional practice)
- farther/further (distance) >< further (= more)
- formally (=officially) >< formerly (=previously)
- hard >< hardly
- imaginary (= not real/fictional) >< imaginative (=creative)
- later >< latter
- lay laid laid laying +Object (= put/place)
lie lay lain lying (= be situated/located)
lie lied lied lying (= not tell the truth)
- loose (adj) >< lose (verb)
- no>< not>< none
- pass (verb) >< past (adj/noun/preposition)
Note: pass = go/come past
- quiet (adj) >< quite (adv)
- raise + object/ be raised (passive) >< rise (without an object)
- set + object (=put/place) >< sit (without an object)
- thorough (adj) >< through (adv)
- out >< out of +Noun
- away>< away from + Noun
- out/in (preposition) >< outer/inner (adjective)
- listen to >< hear
- lone/live/sleeping + noun >< be alone/ alive/asleep
- connect together
- repeat again
- join together
- proceed forward
- advance forward
- only unique
- new innovations
- reread again
- return back
- same identical
- sufficient enough
- separated away from
- incorrect mistake
- progress forward
- important significant
- carefully cautiously
- established founded
- protect guard
- original first
- rarely seldom
- transmit send out
- single only
- around approximately
- chief main
- such as for example
- necessary needed
- Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs
Ex: I haven’t got a ticket. – Neither/Nor have I.
Never before had I been asked to accept a bribe.
Not only do they rob you, they smash everything too
On no account must this switch be touched
Only by shouting was he able to make himself heard.
Only in an emergency should you use this exit.
Rarely did this remedy fail
So suspicious did he become that …
So confusing was the map that we had to ask a police officer for directions.
Such is the popularity of the place that the theater is likely to be full every night.
- The subject and verb of the second clause ( not the first clause) are inverted when the following expressions occur at the beginning of a sentence
Ex: Not until he got home did he realize that he had lost it.
Only if you study hard can you pass the final exam.
- In written English adverb phrases introduced by preposition (down, from, in, on, over, off, out of, round, up .etc.) can be followed by verbs indicating position (crouch, hang, lie sit, stand, be ), by verbs of motion.
Ex: From the rafters hung strings of onions.
In the door way stood a man with a gun.
On a perch beside him sat a blue parrot
Over the wall came a shower of stone.
In front of the museum is a statue.
Off the coast of California lie the Channel Islands.
Ex: Across the United States, the general movement of air masses is from west to east.
- If + Subject + auxiliary can be replaced in formal English by inversion of auxiliary and subject with if omitted.
Ex: If I were in his shoes … = Were I in his shoes …
If you should require anything… = Should you require anything …
If he had known … = Had he known…
Note: the worse (not the worst), the less (not the least), the better (not the best)
Ex: The more he plays, the more he improves.
Incorrect Article Choice
- a >< an
Ex: A eclipse of the sun may be either total or partial
- a/an >< without a/an (uncountable noun)
- a/an >< the
Ex: Rose Bird was a first woman in the history of California to serve on the State Supreme Court
- a/an/the >< without a/an/the
Ex: Slag consists of waste material and impurities which rise to top of melted metals.
The most asteroids are beyond the orbit of the planet Mars.
- the >< possessive adjectives
Ex: The Ozark Mountains of Arkansas are known for the rugged beauty
Common clause markers:
- Time: after , as, as long as, as soon as, before, by the time, now that, once, since, until, when, while, whenever
- Concessions/Contrast: although, even though, though, even if, whereas, while, despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that, except that/however
- Reason: as, because, since, in that, in case
- Results: so that, so … that, such… that
- Manner: as if, as though
- Place: wherever
- Conditions: if, even if, only if, provided, unless
Conjunctions: – and, but, yet, for, so, or
Conjunctive advs – besides, likewise, moreover, in addition, additionally
- however, nevertheless, on the other hand, in contrast, in spite of this
- therefore, as a result, accordingly, consequently
- then, meanwhile
- similarly, correspondingly, likewise
- for example, for instance
- Before singular countable nouns
Ex: Australia is a continent
- To introduce a subject that has not mentioned before
Ex: I saw a tiger.
- With certain expressions
a great many
a great deal
a lot of
fifty miles an/per hour ten kilometers an/per hour
$10 a/per day
- With names of professions
Ex: He is an engineer. She is a doctor.
- Only one example of the thing/person or the identity of the person or thing is clear
Ex: The moon is full today.
Please open the door.
- 2. With certain expressions
- 3. Before a singular noun representative of a class of things ( usually names of animals, plants, inventions, musical instruments, and parts of the body)
Ex: The tiger is the largest cat
The heart pumps blood
The Wright brothers invented the airplane.
She plays the guitar.
- 4. Before ordinal number (Note: No article is used before expressions with cardinal numbers.)
Ex: The First World War (But: World War One)
The second chapter (But: Chapter Two)
The third gate (But: Gate Three)
The seventh volume (But: Volume Seven)
- 5. Before decades and centuries
Ex: the 1930s the fifties the sixties
the twenty-first century the 1800s the twentieth century
- Before superlative adjectives
Ex: The biggest island on earth is Greenland.
- Quantifier + of + the + noun
Many/ some/all/much/most/a few/all/… of the + Noun
Note: These expressions can also be used without the phrase of the
Ex: Many books not much paper
Some water a few pictures
- Before a group of people or a nationality
Ex: The Vietnamese are very hardworking
The Swedish are proud of their ancestors, the Vikings.
Note: No article is used before the name of a language
Ex: She learned to speak Vietnamese when she lived in Hanoi.
- The + adjective (= people who are…)
Ex: The rich should help the poor.
- Before a specific noun
Ex: The coffee I had this morning was Brazilian (specific)
Coffee originated in Ethiopia. (general)
The rice that I bought today is in the bag. (specific)
Rice is a staple in many countries.(general)
The trees in this park are mostly evergreens. (specific)
Trees provide shade. (general)
- The + subject + of NP
Subject (used alone) –> no article
Adjective + Subject –> no article
Ex: The literature of the twentieth century
The history of The United States.
But: I major in literature
I study American history.
- 12. Before names of countries, states, cities, universities, colleges, and schools that contain the word “of” or before countries that have a plural name or an adjective in the name, except for Great Britain
Ex: The United States of America
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (but: Vietnam)
The State of Florida (But: Florida)
The city of Boston ( But: Boston)
The University of Texas ( But: Boston University)
The Netherlands/ The Philippines
- 13. Before
- oceans: Ex: The pacific Ocean
- seas Ex: The Black Sea
- gulfs Ex: The Gulf of Mexico
- rivers Ex: The Nile
- plural names of mountains Ex: The Appalachian Mountains (But: Mount Everest)
- plural names of islands Ex: The Hawaiian Islands (But: Manhattan Island)
- plural names of lakes Ex: The Great Lakes (But: Lake Michigan)
- 14. Before the names of ships, planes, trains and people’s family names
Ex: The Titanic
The Orient Express
GERUND AND INFINITIVE
- VERB + TO INF
Ex: Tom wants to become a doctor.
Susan pretended to sleep.
David promised not to be late again.
- VERB + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE
Ex: They begged us to come.
I warn you not to drive so fast.
Note: advise/allow/encourage/permit/recommend (1) + object + to inf
(2) + V-ing
Ex: He doesn’t allow smoking in his house
He doesn’t allow anyone to smoke in his house
Nobody is allowed to smoke in his house
III. VERB + V-ING
Ex: I dislike driving long distances
I can’t help worrying about it.
Would you mind not smoking in this class?
- VERB + V-ING/ TO INFINITIVE
Ex: It began to rain/ raining
Note: would like/love/prefer + to infinitive
Ex: I would like to play tennis today.
- ADJECTIVE / PARTICIPLE+ TO INFINITIVE
Ex: Tom is anxious to see his family.
It is very dangerous to drive in this weather.
We are ready to leave now.
Note: be busy/worth + V-ing.
Ex: He is busy doing his homework.
The book is worth reading.
- PREPOSITION + V-ING
- VERB + PREPOSITION + V-ING
Ex: John gave up smoking three years ago.
I am looking forward to going back to school.
- ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION + V-ING
Ex: She is afraid of getting married now.
To gets used to getting up early.
- SPECIAL CASES
He stopped smoking (He gave up smoking; he is not going to smoke any more.)
He stopped to smoke (He stopped doing something in order to smoke)
TRY + TO INF: make an effort to do something
Ex: I was very tire. I tried to keep my eyes open, but I couldn’t.
TRY + V-ING: do something as an experiment or test
Ex: I’ve got a terrible headache. I tried taking an aspirin, but it did not help.
REMEMBER + TO INF: You remember to do something before you do it
Ex: Please remember to post the letter. (= Don’t forget to post the letter)
REMEMBER + V-ING: You remember doing something after you do it
Ex: I clearly remember locking the door before I left.
NEED + TO INF (ACTIVE)
Ex: John needs to paint the door.
My friend needed to learn Spanish
NEED + V-ING = NEED + TO BE DONE (PASSIVE)
Ex: The grass needs cutting/ to be cut.
The television needs fixing/to be fixed.
- MAKE/LET/HAVE + OBJECT + BARE INFINITIVE
Ex: Sad movies always make me cry.
I had the mechanic repair my car. (I had my car repaired by the mechanic
My parents do not let me go out late at night.
- VERBS OF PERCEPTION + V-ING/ BARE INFINITIVE
Ex: I saw my friend running/run down the street.
- GO + V-ING
Ex: My sister went sailing yesterday
- TO INFINITIVE can be used after the first, the second…, the last, the only and sometimes after superlatives.
Ex: She loves parties. She is always the first to come and the last to leave.
He is the second man to be killed in this way.
- TO INFINITIVE can be used after certain nouns
Ex: His ability to get on with people is his chief asset.
Ex: He made an effort to stand up.
- COMMON NOUN (THING) ENDINGS
- –ism : baptism, criticism, organism, heroism, patriotism, alcoholism,
barbarism, dwarfism, parallelism
- –nce : importance, significance, dependence, arrogance, resistance,
- –ness : bitterness, conceitedness, darkness, hardness, kindheartedness
- –ion : excision, damnation, pollution, suggestion, a notion, an action,
vexation, concoction, completion.
- –ment : abridgement, accomplishment, banishment, commencement,
embodiment, enhancement, excitement, fragment, garment, ornament, treatment
- –(i)ty : purity, authority, dubiety, majority, superiority, humidity, cruelty,
faculty, honesty, plenty, safety, subtlety
- –age : baggage, carriage, cartage, damage, dotage, hermitage, homage
language, luggage, marriage, passage, tillage, tonnage, vicarage,
- –ship : ambassadorship, citizenship, headship, professorship, chairmanship,
fellowship, scholarship, companionship, friendship, hardship,
relationship, craftsmanship, entrepreneurship, horsemanship,
- –th : bath, birth, death, oath, growth, stealth, filth, health, length, strength,
truth, depth, breadth, wealth.
- –dom : earldom, freedom, kingdom, officialdom, wisdom
- –hood : childhood, falsehood, sisterhood, brotherhood, neighborhood,
- –ure : closure, picture, scripture, legislature, nature, failure, pleasure,
- –cy : bankruptcy, captaincy, democracy, privacy, delicacy, advocacy,
confederacy, accuracy, obstinacy, piracy, , aristocracy, expectancy,
efficiency, presidency, sufficiency, deficiency
- –(t)ry : rivalry, ancestry, carpentry, industry, greenery, machinery, scenery,
bakery, brewery, bravery, slavery, archery
- –logy : archaeology, geology, sociology, theology, zoology
- –graphy : bibliography, biography
- COMMON NOUN (PERSON) ENDINGS
- – or : actor, creator, doctor, monitor, sculptor, successor, guarantor,
conqueror, donor, governor, solicitor, tailor, visitor. bachelor
- – er : hatter, geographer, astrologer, cottager, foreigner, Londoner,
New Yorker, northerner, villager, airliner, old-timer, sorcerer
- – ee : employee, payee, devotee, escapee, conferee, absentee, refugee.
- – ist : chemist, dramatist, economist, geologist; dentist, pianist, tobacconist;
Buddhist, Darwinist, idealist, Marxist, racist, optimist, pessimist
- – ician : magician, physician, musician, electrician, beautician,
politician, statistician, mathematician, mortician,
- – ant (10%) : assistant, accountant, consultant, contestant, inhabitant
- ADJECTIVE ENDINGS
- – ent : independent, sufficient, absent, ambivalent, ancient, apparent,
- – ant : arrogant, expectant, important, significant , abundant, ignorant,
- – ful : beautiful, graceful, powerful, grateful, forgetful, mournful,
Exceptions: handful, mouthful, spoonful are nouns
- – ic : civic, classic, historic, artistic, economic,
- – less : doubtless, fearless, hatless, powerless, countless, tireless, faceless,
legless, careless, helpless
- – ive : authoritative, demonstrative, figurative, imitative, qualitative,
talkative, active, passive, comparative, possessive
- – ous : dangerous, glorious, murderous, viscous, ferocious, hilarious,
- – able : charitable, separable, bearable, reliable, comfortable, suitable.
- – ible : audible, compressible, edible, horrible, terrible
- – al : central, general, oral, colossal, tropical, tidal
Exceptions : rival, arrival, proposal, withdrawal, survival are nouns
- – ory : mandatory, compulsory, predatory, satisfactory
Exceptions : dormitory, promontory, territory are nouns
- – ary : arbitrary, budgetary, contrary, primary, temporary, necessary
- – y : angry, happy, icy, messy, milky, tidy, chilly, haughty, slippery,
- – ly : beastly, cowardly, queenly, rascally
- – (r)ate (10%): temperate, accurate, considerate, immediate, literate
- – ish : boorish, boyish, foolish, womanish, bookish, feverish, bluish, reddish
- COMMON VERB ENDINGS
- – en/ en – : listen, happen, strengthen, lengthen, shorten, soften, ripen, deepen,
widen, entrust, enslave, enlighten, entangle, enlarge, encourage,
- – ate : assassinate, associate, fascinate, felicitate, hydrate, separate,
- – ize : characterize, idolize, agonize, apologize, sympathize, theorize,
authorize, extemporize, fertilize, fossilize, jeopardize, moralize,
Americanize, carbonize, oxidize
- – ify : pacify, satisfy, petrify, solidify, horrify
- COMMON ADVERB ENDING
- – ly : amusingly, deservedly, firstly, fully, greatly, happily, hourly, truly,
- – wise : crosswise, lengthwise, otherwise, clockwise
- – ways : edgeways, endways, lengthways, sideways
- – ward : backward, homeward, inward, onward, skyward, eastward
SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT
- BASIC SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT
- Singular Subject + Singular Verb
- Plural Subject + Plural Verb
Ex: My friend lives in Boston.
Growing flowers is her hobby.
My friends live in Boston.
- SPECIAL CASES
Ex: The actor and the singer are coming.
Jean and David are coming back to Australia.
Note: However, phrases connected by and can be followed by singular verbs if we think of them as making up a single item.
Ex: Meat pie and peas is Tom’s favorite at the moment
Fish and chips is my favorite food
Ex: One of my friends is here.
You together with Tom are responsible for this failure.
Ex: Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach
Ex: There is a book on the shelf
There are three books on the shelf
Ex: Here comes the Queen.
Here lie many unknown soldiers.
Ex: Each boy/ each of the boys has a gift.
Note: Each boy and each girl is to do this exercise.
Ex: Everyone has his or her own idea.
Ex: A number of refugees have been turned back at the border.
Plenty of potatoes are grown here.
None of the answers are correct.
Ex: The number of books in the library has risen to over five million.
Ex: All the furniture was destroyed in the fire.
Ex: The team is winning. (the team as a group)
The team are going back to their homes. (meaning individual members of the team)
Ex: The pants are in the drawer.
(A pair of pants is in the drawer)
Ex: The police are looking for the missing child.
Ex: Physics is difficult.
The news is alarming.
- The titles of books, plays, movies, etc., always take a singular verb
Ex: The Los Angeles Times is on the desk.
Gulliver’s Travels is a well-known children’s book.
- Nouns stating an amount of time, money or measurement always take a singular verb
Ex: Five minutes is not enough to do this exercise.
Thirty-five dollars is too much for this shirt.
Four -hundred miles is too much to drive in one day.
Ex: The poor need help.
Ex: Smoking is harmful to your health.